The role of nursing in the delivery of health care has emerged as a complex and cross‐cutting issue ripe for inquiry and multidisciplinary research. Indeed, problems in the nursing workforce have risen high on the agendas on many influential organizations, including the American Academy of Nursing, the Institute of Medicine, the National Quality Forum, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and others. In an effort to clarify current research issues and advance an agenda for future investigations, Dr. Peter Buerhaus at Vanderbilt University organized a round table focused on the working conditions of the nursing workforce at the AcademyHealth 2003 Annual Research Meeting in Nashville, Tenn. Chaired by the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Public Health's , the “Working Conditions of the Nursing Workforce” roundtable proved to be a provocative exchange of views among researchers and users of research. Participants shared background about their role in advancing the research, identified gaps in current research, and suggested specific areas for further research. What follows is an edited transcript of the Roundtable that, in addition to Dr. Needleman, included , National Quality Forum; , University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; , The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; and , Johns Hopkins University.