To examine the impact of the 340B drug discount program on the site of cancer drug administration and cancer care spending in Medicare.
2010–2013 Medicare claims data for a random sample of Medicare Fee‐for‐Service beneficiaries with cancer.
We identified the 340B effect using variation in the availability of 340B hospitals across markets. We considered beneficiaries from markets that newly gained a 340B hospital during the study period (new 340B markets) as the treatment group. Beneficiaries in markets with no 340B hospital were the control group. We used a difference‐in‐differences approach with market fixed effects.
Secondary data analysis.
The probability of a patient receiving cancer drug administration in hospital outpatient departments (HOPDs) versus physician offices increased 7.8 percentage points more in new 340B markets than in markets with no 340B hospital. Per‐patient spending on other cancer care increased $1,162 more in new 340B markets than in markets with no 340B hospital.
The 340B program shifted the site of cancer drug administration to HOPDs and increased spending on other cancer care. As the program expands, continuing assessment of its impact on service utilization and spending would be needed.
Data Sources/Study Setting