To examine the effect of high‐risk obstetrics (HROB) care management on infant health and Medicaid expenditures.
Medicaid administrative data and vital statistics from 2011 to 2013. In New York State, all Medicaid managed care plans provide HROB care management to their members.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study with a nonequivalent control group. Selection bias was addressed by using probit and OLS models with the Heckman correction and inverse probability weight with regression adjustment.
While program enrollment was associated with poor infant health outcomes (low birthweight, very low birthweight, preterm delivery, and gestational age), correcting for sample selection substantially improved most of these outcomes. All infant health outcomes significantly improved as the number of weeks in the program increased. We found that a 1‐week increase in program duration is associated with a 0.01 percentage point decrease in low birthweight and a 0.03 percentage point decrease in very low birthweight. Further, a 1‐week increase in program duration decreases the probability of preterm delivery by 0.01 percentage points and increases gestational age by 0.14 days. Medicaid expenditures for maternity care and newborn delivery were not significantly or materially affected by program enrollment or program duration.
High‐risk obstetrics care management appears to successfully identify individuals with high‐risk pregnancies and improve health without substantially increasing medical expenses.
Data Sources/Study Setting