To assess the relationship between a composite measure of neighborhood disadvantage, the Area Deprivation Index (), and control of blood pressure, diabetes, and cholesterol in the Medicare Advantage (MA) population.
Secondary analysis of 2013 Medicare Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set, Medicare enrollment data, and a neighborhood disadvantage indicator.
We tested the association of neighborhood disadvantage with intermediate health outcomes. Generalized estimating equations were used to adjust for geographic and individual factors including region, sex, race/ethnicity, dual eligibility, disability, and rurality.
Data were linked by +4, representing compact geographic areas that can be linked to Census block groups.
Compared with enrollees residing in the least disadvantaged neighborhoods, enrollees in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods were 5 percentage points (< 0.05) less likely to have controlled blood pressure, 6.9 percentage points ( < 0.05) less likely to have controlled diabetes, and 9.9 percentage points ( < 0.05) less likely to have controlled cholesterol. Adjustment attenuated this relationship, but the association remained.
The is a strong, independent predictor of diabetes and cholesterol control, a moderate predictor of blood pressure control, and could be used to track neighborhood‐level disparities and to target disparities‐focused interventions in the population.