To examine the effects of a schizophrenia pay‐for‐performance (P4P) program on the health outcomes of patients in Taiwan.
Seven years (2007‐2013) of data from the National Health Insurance Administration (NHIA) databases were examined.
P4P patients included those who were treated at participating facilities and consecutively included in the regular group (classified by the NHIA). Non‐P4P patients were treated at nonparticipating facilities and never included in the regular group. The caliper matching method and a generalized estimating equation were used to estimate difference‐in‐differences models (baseline year 2009) and examine the short‐ and long‐term effects of the P4P program on adverse outcomes.
The schizophrenia P4P program was associated with decreases in unscheduled outpatient visits (OR: 0.69, <0.001) and compulsory admissions (incidence rate ratio: 0.33, <0.05). However, this program was not associated with decreases in other outcomes including emergency department visits for any disease, admissions to an acute psychiatric ward, and readmission within 6 months.
Although the disease management component of the P4P program can be beneficial for compulsory admissions, more sophisticated activities, such as health promotion targeting disadvantaged patients, could be implemented to reduce the occurrence of complicated adverse outcomes.