Volume 53 | Number S1 | August 2018

Abstract List

Timothy J. Beebe, Robert M. Jacobson M.D., Sarah M. Jenkins M.S., Kandace A. Lackore B.S., Lila J. Finney Rutten Ph.D.


To compare response rate and nonresponse bias across two mixed‐mode survey designs and two single‐mode designs.

Data Sources

This experiment was embedded in a clinician survey of knowledge and attitudes regarding vaccination ( = 275).

Study Design

Clinicians were randomly assigned one of two mixed‐mode (mail/web or web/mail) or single‐mode designs (mail‐only/web‐only). Differences in response rate and nonresponse bias were assessed.

Principal Findings

Using a multiple‐contact protocol increased response, and sending a web survey first provided the more rapid response. Overall, the mixed‐mode survey designs generated final response rates approximately 10 percentage points higher than their single‐mode counterparts, although only the final response differences between the mail‐only and web/mail conditions attained statistical significance (32.1 percent vs. 48 percent, respectively;  = .005). Observed differences did not result in nonresponse bias.


Results support mixing modes of survey administration and web‐based data collection in a multiple contact survey data collection protocol.