National household survey.
Data Collection/Extraction Methods
We analyzed data on 12,434 adolescents (10 through 18 years old) included in the 1999 and 2000 editions of the National Health Interview Survey.
We assessed the presence of income gradients using four income groups. Outcome variables included health status, health insurance coverage, access to and satisfaction with care, utilization, and unmet health needs.
After adjustment for confounding variables using multivariate analysis, statistically significant disparities were found between poor adolescents and their counterparts in middle‐ and higher‐income families for three of four health status measures, six of eight measures of access to and satisfaction with care, and for six of nine indicators of access to and use of medical care, dental care, and mental health care.
Our analyses indicate adolescents in low‐income families remain at a disadvantage despite expansions of the Medicaid program and the comparatively new State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). Additional efforts are needed to ensure eligible adolescents are enrolled in these programs. Nonfinancial barriers to care must also be addressed to reduce inequities.
Data Sources/Study Setting