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Medicaid enrollment among previously uninsured Americans and associated outcomes by race/ethnicity-United States, 2008-2014

Objectives: To examine the personlevel impact of Medicaid enrollment on costs, utilization, access, and health across previously uninsured racial/ethnic groups.

Data Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 20082014.

Study Design: We pooled multiple 2year waves of data to examine the direct impact of Medicaid enrollment among uninsured Americans. We compared changes in outcomes among nonpregnant, uninsured individuals who gained Medicaid (N = 963) to those who remained uninsured (N = 9784) using a differenceindifferences analysis.

Principal Findings: Medicaid enrollment was associated with significant increases in total health care costs and total prescription drug costs and a significant decrease in outofpocket costs. Among those who gained Medicaid, prescription drug use increased significantly relative to those who remained uninsured. Medicaid enrollment was also associated with a significant increase in reporting a usual source of care, a decrease in foregone care, and significant improvements in severe psychological distress. Changes in total prescription drug costs and total prescription drug fills differed significantly across each racial/ethnic group.

Conclusions: Among a national sample of uninsured individuals, Medicaid enrollment was associated with substantial favorable changes in outofpocket costs, prescription drug use, and access to care. Our findings suggest Medicaid is an important tool to reduce insurancerelated disparities among Americans.

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