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Effectiveness of Interventions for Breast Cancer Screening in African American Women: A MetaAnalysis

Objective: The purpose of this study was to report the results of a metaanalysis conducted on the effects of clinical trials in breast cancer screening for African American women between 1997 and 2017.

Data Sources: Articles published in English and in the United States, between January 1997 and March 2017, were eligible for inclusion if they (1) conducted psychosocial, behavioral, or educational interventions designed to increase screening mammography rates in predominantly African American women of all ages; (2) utilized a randomized, controlled trial (RCT) design; and (3) reported quantitative screening rates following the intervention.

Study Design: Randomized clinical trials on breast cancer screening in African American women, published between January 1997 and March 2017, were selected from database searches.

Data Collection Methods: Data collected included effect size of screening versus comparison interventions, intervention characteristics, and a number of study characteristics to explore potential moderators. Search results yielded 327 articles, of which 14 met inclusion criteria and were included in analyses.

Principal Findings: Findings indicated that screening interventions for African American women were significantly more likely to result in mammography than control (OR = 1.56 [95 percent CI = 1.27–1.93], p < .0001). Although no patient or study characteristics significantly moderated screening efficacy, the most effective interventions were those specifically tailored to meet the perceived risk of African American women.

Conclusions: Screening interventions are at least minimally effective for promoting mammography among African American women, but research in this area is limited to a small number of studies. More research is needed to enhance the efficacy of existing interventions and reduce the high morbidity and mortality rate of this underserved population.

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