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Testing the Impact of MixedMode Designs (Mail and Web) and Multiple Contact Attempts within Mode (Mail or Web) on Clinician Survey Response

Objective: To compare response rate and nonresponse bias across two mixedmode survey designs and two singlemode designs.

Data Sources: This experiment was embedded in a clinician survey of knowledge and attitudes regarding HPV vaccination (n = 275).

Study Design: Clinicians were randomly assigned one of two mixedmode (mail/web or web/mail) or singlemode designs (mailonly/webonly). Differences in response rate and nonresponse bias were assessed.

Principal Findings: Using a multiplecontact protocol increased response, and sending a web survey first provided the more rapid response. Overall, the mixedmode survey designs generated final response rates approximately 10 percentage points higher than their singlemode counterparts, although only the final response differences between the mailonly and web/mail conditions attained statistical significance (32.1 percent vs. 48 percent, respectively; p = .005). Observed differences did not result in nonresponse bias.

Conclusions: Results support mixing modes of survey administration and webbased data collection in a multiple contact survey data collection protocol.

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